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                         歡迎訪問德育新時空!
                        愛玩游戲不一定是“游戲成癮” 家長切莫草木皆兵
                        2019年06月08日 09:34來源:網絡轉載 閱讀量: 175

                        游戲成癮已經被世衛組織列入精神疾病。正值暑假,捧著手機打手游、對著電腦結盟開戰的學生并不鮮見。來自心理醫生的診室數據顯示,每到暑假結束,心理診室會迎來一個學生咨詢的高峰,這些學生不少都是放假期間狂打游戲,到開學時出現注意力無法集中、影響社交等問題。心理醫生提醒,暑假時間相對較長,一方面,家長不應把打游戲等同于“壞習慣”,動輒封殺,草木皆兵,激化親子關系惡化;另一方面,對于中小學生等自控能力還未完全成熟的群體,家長發揮引導作用責無旁貸。 

                        打游戲足不出戶 

                        患上強迫癥 

                        廣東省心理學會臨床專業委員會副主任委員、廣東三九腦科醫院心理行為科副主任醫師王德民介紹,在各種心理成癮的案例中,因游戲成癮走進心理診室的故事比較多。 

                        王德民曾接診了一個典型案例。這名22歲的男生阿山(化名)來自佛山,在海南讀大學,大一時因為學業相對輕松,自由時間比較多,他迷上了打游戲,時常逃課。畢業后在父母安排下他回到佛山從事一份非常穩定的工作,在打游戲的基礎上開始頻密地上不良網站,逐漸發展到通宵看,開始是尋找各種理由不上班、長時間請病假,最后辭職。父母一氣之下沒收電腦,小山也一氣之下搬出去獨自居住,奶奶心疼孫子,時常接濟經濟并送飯,小山逐漸演變成足不出戶。 

                        漸漸地,在長時間通宵打游戲、看不良網站的行為下,小山開始出現焦慮、抑郁等心理問題,并有強迫性行為:每次出門,每走3步退回兩步,走了10多個來回后才能順利下樓出門,在家反復洗手,不跟任何人聯系,在嚴重的焦慮、抑郁、強迫癥癥狀折磨下,他在父母陪同下來到醫院就診,確診為強迫癥。 

                        每年暑假結束后 

                        是心理診室高峰期 

                        “每年暑假結束后,我這邊就會有很多學生過來就診。”王德民介紹,他們時常被老師或者家長帶過來,出現的問題多是沉迷于游戲,開學后無法集中注意力,部分嚴重的有一些生理性的反應。 

                        十多年來長期從事青少年藥物成癮治療工作、來自武警廣東省總隊醫院心理科的主治醫生陳卓介紹,從以往的經驗來看,每到開學季都會有許多初中、高中生因為“不愿上學”前來就診,其中相當一部分迷戀網絡,而患者自身又無法接受自己對網絡沉迷的這一事實,在現實生活中呈現出各種不明原因的軀體不適、人際關系緊張等問題。當然,這些現實困擾可能部分存在,但其行為表現出來的就是長時間玩手機,這一行為又進一步惡化其現實困擾,對上學讀書更加抵觸。 

                        家長切莫草木皆兵 

                        打游戲要合理引導 

                        “有一些家長以為自己的孩子沉迷打游戲就是成癮了,其實日常生活中的上癮并不等同于心理學上界定的成癮。”王德民指出。 

                        王德民表示,心理成癮的判定最核心的是強迫性、連續性、定期去使用某種物質或者做某種行為,伴隨一定的戒斷反應,明知道對自己已經構成損害但是不能控制,“要強調無法控制并且已經對個人的生活和社交產生了嚴重影響。例如‘游戲成癮’的界定,也強調‘游戲行為模式必須足夠嚴重,導致在個人、家庭、社交、教育、職場或其他重要領域造成重大的損害,癥狀通常明顯持續至少12個月’,界定非常謹慎,所以不要隨便給自己或孩子扣上心理有問題、有精神病的帽子。” 

                        而且,成癮行為一般不是短時間發展而成的,王德民介紹,在他接診的案例中,并非在暑假短期打游戲就發展成為“游戲成癮”,真正確診患病的大多是有3年以上的打游戲歷史。

                        因此,心理醫生提醒,家長應該糾正認識的誤區,應該看到,打游戲其實也是一種正常的益智、放松的休閑娛樂方式,不能一看到孩子坐在電腦面前就草木皆兵,不斷指責責備,這樣不但會激化親子矛盾,而且對于孩子也構成負面的心理陰影。 

                        建議: 

                        對未成年孩子要加強引導 

                        如何避免孩子沉迷游戲逐漸演變成游戲成癮的嚴重程度呢?在放暑假時如何給孩子做積極的心理建設呢? 

                        王德民建議,如果家中孩子喜歡打游戲,那么應該限制一定的上網時間,家長也可以通過布置網上作業的方式引導正確使用網絡的模式。更重要的是,要多引導孩子培養一些戶外愛好,周末一起出去運動,幫助孩子把握好學習、放松、運動的時間表和生活節奏。 

                        “未成年人的自控能力不夠成熟,他們是需要家長去關懷引導的。”陳卓表示,如果孩子沉迷于游戲中,并且覺得從中可以獲得愉悅和快感時,家長也應該學會主動做積極的心理建設,告訴子女,這樣達到的短暫興奮感是一個惡性循環的“死胡同”。在現實生活中,無論是工作、學習成就還是個人價值的獲得,都是需要時間積累才能獲得的,這種獲得才是豐富和充實的,短暫的成癮性的興奮是脫離現實的,長期依賴其中容易逐漸無法自拔,引導他們學會正確看待打游戲,調整自己的自控力處于平衡狀態。 

                        [出處:廣州日報]

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